>plants, not just bulbs. Even if you can't manage a plunge bed, >at least put your potted bulbs in a high wooden surround to keep >direct sun off the pots. Roger, Or just do like I do..... have so many pots together in by back yard that the sun just doesn't get a look in below the surface! LOL I have about 3000 pots in my back yard, all rim to rim which does tend to keep the faces of the pots obscured from direct sun. It sort of works the same (or at least I like to kid myself it does). The framework for a surround or a plunge bed would take away valuable pots space! <big grin> Seriously, I do think you're right that a lot of the problems we have is due to pots open to direct sun around the roots. Also in winter it magnifies the effects of frost etc as it allows air circulation around the outside of the rootsystem, and therefore allows the cold to penetrate much further into the root area. I make reference to us having -9'C most winters, but mention always if I grow the particular plant referred to in pots, as it means that effectively the plant gets much colder than that as there is no insulation of the root system like the ground normally does. I have often wondered just how much colder it effectively makes the plants? I would imagine that it would mean that the root zone of the plant would have to be at least 5'C colder than those in the ground, in fact probably more. I grow all of my Cypellas in pots quite successfully, even in those sort of root temps. I have numerous species (although hauthalii ssp opalina is one that I have not yet managed to acquire) which do well for me, flowering regularly and they are a real joy. Whether mine thrive is difficult to tell as I have only seen them in my own garden and therefore have no reference as to what they may look like in ideal situations, but I do know that they seem pretty happy for me. I try to get them up into 8 inch black plastic pots where possible as that gives a bit more insulation during winter (and while growing in summer, where we get to air temp of around 40'C) but this is not always possible. They are definitely hardier than many books seem to rate them.... but as I said, whether they are thriving in my conditions is not something I can comment on. They definitely do well for me and seem to flower freely. I have quite a few Cypellas, Tigridias and the alliance now. I hope this is of some help to others wanting to try this family of bulbs.... they really are gems!! Cheers. Paul Tyerman Canberra, Australia. USDA equivalent - Zone 8/9 Growing.... Galanthus, Erythroniums, Fritillarias, Trilliums, Cyclamen, Crocus, Cyrtanthus, Oxalis, Liliums, Hellebores, Aroids, Irises plus just about anything else that doesn't move!!!!!