>> >> And the arithmetic rules you cited, important as they might be in their >> relevant contexts, have nothing to do with what we are talking about > here. Agreed-- except that people may think in these terms sometimes--and the arithmetic terminology sometimes can overlap in their thinking. I noted it only to make the point that the reciprocal cross is not the same, mainly because of maternal inheritance factors (which reason I didn't specify). Adam, if you would like to take on another assignment in which you could strut you arithmetic stuff, then explain to the group why triploid plants are less likely to yield successfrul plants when used as the male parent. Can't! Since I don't know that this is so, except as you've noted it, I can't comment. My particular knowledge is mostly derived from irises and general knowledge from general readings and this forum. Can you cite any references? I didn't know that triploid pollen is less likely to result in viable seed.. Is it true for wheat too? .