Dear All, I have been disappointed there have not been more responses about Gethyllis. For one thing I'd really like to know more. I wrote Gordon Summerfield with Bob Werra's question about pollination and Jay Yourch's about general growth although I suspect this would not be a genus that would be happy in areas with wet summers since most of them are from winter rainfall areas and many of them from winter rainfall areas with low rainfall amounts (sounds like a natural for Southern California.) And I asked what to do with my Gethyllis that I got from him that are growing at the wrong time of the year. I was also curious whether Bob Werra's experience with leaves appearing in winter was typical. Gordon has kindly replied and here is what he said: "With regards to the Gethyllis, only start to withhold water when you notice natural die back of the leaves as they start to turn yellow. There is no need to place them in a sunnier position - with one or two exceptions, due largely to space retrictions, mine are grown under cover and receive no direct sunlight and they thrive. Light airy conditions are more important and keep them moist throughout their leaf stage. Do not under any circumstances apply water at the flowering stage - unless of course there is simultaneous leaf growth. I disagree with Bob that Gethyllis are not spectacular. The variation in the plant and leaf structure are unique as is the spear (missile if you like) protrusions of the flowers, following an atmospheric pressure gradient change (either low or high) in the heat of summer and the finger like pods of fruit, either on their own or with the foliage in Autumn. Absolutely unique, fascinating and to my mind quite stunning!!! On the question of pollination - As the flowers only last an average of 4 to 5 days, I hand pollinate from the second day. This delay (2nd day) might not be enough time to allow the pollen to ripen, but at least one will not miss-out. I make my own cotton buds dipped in glycerine (squeezed out with my fingers) and transfer the pollen of one flower to the single stigma of another flower and vice-versa. Some flowers do not produce a stigma! Why I do not know and whether the pollen of such a flower is fertile (ie to use on anther flower with a stigma) I also do not know. The stigma also differs quite markedly within the species, most, such as G.verticillata, G.linearis, G.barkerae. G.lanuginosa and G.villosa, it appears to the side of the anthers bearing the pollen and somewhat longer and invariably yellow in colour whereas with G.britteniana, G.ciliaris, G.tatifolia and G.afra it protrudes from the middle of the anthers and is white. Rubbing the flowers together will I am afraid be a bit "hit and miss" In the Southern hemisphere the leaves start to appear from April and with few exceptions continue in leaf through to the end of September, flowers starting as early as late September right through to February, early March (depending on the species and variants within the species) and the fruits then showing from end March early April through to July. Apodolirion on the other hand (the summer rainfall Gethyllis) die back in our winter months but flower and fruit at a very similar time as Gethyllis. I have only manged to locate one Apodolirion - A.macowanii, I think, which has fortunately provided about a dozen seeds! To answer your question yes the leaves of Gethyllis start to appear in Autumn once the bulb receives moisture and will continue in leaf through winter and into early spring. For growing Gethyllis successfully, good light is I believe very important, however, temperature is of less importance. G.britteniana for example grows around Sutherland where the low tempertaures this winter have varied between -10c to -l5c but also thrives along the West Coast where the minimum temperatures will rarely fall below 0c. The summer temperatures in both areas can however, quite easily reach between 35c to 40c plus."