John T Lonsdale
Tue, 13 Nov 2007 09:27:28 PST
The size and shape of ice crystals is directly related to the amount of
damage they cause, particularly in disrupting cellular organelles like
membranes.  Their size/shape is affected by the rate of freezing, among
other parameters.  Rapid and multiple freeze-thaw cycles are very bad for
all living cells.  Minimizing the number of freeze-thaw cycles and allowing
controlled thawing make a big difference - cells can repair a certain amount
of damage, but not rapidly and constantly.

I think of frost as the white stuff that coats things but isn't ice or snow.
Freezing is a descriptor of temperature - i.e. a temperature below the
freezing point of whatever the material is.  You can freeze without
encountering frost.



John T Lonsdale PhD
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