If one follows a series of steps in the publication of a species and it is accepted, it will be a valid species. Here in South America we have lots of situations in which a species does not exist but since all the protocoles were suppsedly followed the species' existence is taken as a fact. Just to name a few, species of Leucocoryne that proved to be a single plant amidst a sea of a known Leucocoryne species. Years ago, during a field trip the aim was to collect species of recently published Cannas for our nice friend Jim Waddick. These were published by a Japanese fellow. Incredibly, in all cases, the "new" species were one of a series of variants where populations of Canna coccinea and C. glauca overlappèd. There were numbers of warm colors in a small zone and one could have made dozens of "species" if need be. And these "new" species were valid species for the protocoles were followed and respected.