Hieronymiella aurea & Rhodophiala advena Seedling Update

Lee Poulsen wlp@ampersand.Jpl.Nasa.Gov
Mon, 04 Nov 2002 17:29:15 PST
>Hi All,
>For those of you who got these particular IBS B/X seeds in September of 2001
>and March of 2002, I thought I'd provide a progress report.  The plants in
>question are Rhodophiala advena and Hieronymiella aurea, respectively.
>Mark Wilcox
>Washington, DC

First off, I am amazed that you grew the Hieronymiella inside to such a large size in such a short time. It's only been about 6-7 months since we got seeds for it. The 3 or 4 seedlings I managed to keep growing through the summer are still small, spindly, single-leaved things, nothing like the strap-leaved giant you show in the photos. How did you grow it? What were the daily temperature extremes? What kind of soil mix did you use? Any fertilizers?

Secondly, Steve Putnam managed to get hold of the Kurtziana articles that were referenced by Alan Meerow back in March. They are in Spanish, and I started a quick attempt at translating them, but don't know how good it is (and have had to pause for the last 2-3 months because of a new baby and no spare time). I'm sure Alberto Castillo could do a superb job if he had the time.

In any case, I'm appending below the parts from the four articles that deal with Hieronymiella tintinensis which Hunziker says is the same thing as H. aurea. At the end is a key for the whole genus which is found in the third (1975) article that I updated slightly based on the fourth (1995) article. I'm not sure if they'll help any with growing them, but there is a lot of information there that someone might find useful. (And the website

Table of Contents for Bryological Glossary in Spanish and Table of Contents for Bryological Glossary in English helped a lot with all the botanical terms I don't know.)

--Lee Poulsen 
PBS Treasurer

====================================================== [pg. 7] KURTZIANA   4: 7-18   Córdoba, December 1967



I. A NEW SPECIES OF Hieronymiella, AND THE INVALIDITY OF Eustephiopsis......7 
II. THE BOTANIC NAME OF THE "Azucena blanca fragrante" ("fragrant white Lily") OF THE ARGENTINE NORTHEAST.............12
IV. SUMMARY........17

I. A NEW SPECIES OF Hieronymiella, AND THE INVALIDITY OF Eustephiopsis

The monotypic genus Hieronymiella PAX is one of the least known among the Argentine Amaryllids. Important characteristics not yet pointed out-of the species type, and of others that ought to be transferred to Hieronymiella-will be treated "in extenso" in a subsequent article, as soon as we complete our information about very valuable materials that we have been cultivating-for some time now-with Dr. A. E. Cocucci. This note has as its objective to not delay the knowledge of a very beautiful new species coming from northeastern Argentina, and whose characteristics are:

			Hieronymiella tintinensis nov. sp. 					(Fig. 1)

1 The first submission of this series is: A. T. HUNZIKER and A. E. COCUCCI. 1959. Studies on Amaryllidaceae I. A new species of Hippeastrum from Central Argentina: H. parodii nov. sp. Bol. Ac. Nac. Cienc. (Córdoba) 41 (1): 5-16. f. 1-4. 2 Member of the Office of Scientific Investigator (National Council of Scientific and Technical Investigation, Argentina). The illustrations that accompany this article were done by the artist LEONOR SÁNCHEZ.

[pg. 8] Argentina. Salta Prov.: Cachi Dept.: Bulbs collected on Cerro Tintin [Tintin Hill], 2800 m asl, between Payogasta and Tintin, JUAN HECTOR HUNZIKER and C. A. NARANJO, 27-II-1965, cult. in Córdoba. (CORD: bottle 1188; pots 255, 262 and 265).

Bulb from 8 to 8.5 cm in diameter by ±8.5 cm in height to the neck; neck from ±6.5 cm in length by ±1.8 cm in width; cauline [having to do with the stem] disk from ±2.5 cm in major diameter. Leaves, dark-green, linear, grooved/corrugated, 8 in number, well developed when the scape appears; during flowering they measure between 21 and 24 cm in length by 1-1.2 cm in width,narrowing towards the top (near the apex ±0.8 cm in width), with an acute apex; subhyaline edge, whitish, scabrous, having toward the apex relatively large papiliform emergences. Solid scape, greenish, 4-7 flowers, elliptical in cross-section, compressed, with 2 subacute edges, 22 to 32 cm in height; at soil level the major diameter is from 0.85-0.9 cm, and the minor diameter is from 0.45-0.5 cm, while at the apex they are ±0.7 cm by ±0.4 cm, respectively. Spathe formed by 2 free valves, from ±0.9 cm in length by 1 to 1.5 cm in basal width; 4 to 7 bracts, from 2 to 7 cm in length. Actinomorphic flowers, softly perfumed, oblique; pedicels from 2.1-3.1 cm in length by ±0.25 cm in diameter. Yellow perianth, from 5.5-6.4 cm in length, with obovate segments from 4.2-4.7 cm in length; short tube from 1.3-1.75 cm in length; sepals from 0.8-0.95 cm in width, with a short retrorse appendage on the internal face, below the mucron (mucron from 0.4-0.5 mm); apiculate petals, [pg. 10] wider than the sepals, from 1.2-1.3 cm in width. Almost completely welded stamens, in a big yellow corona, a little shorter than the perianth segments; subcylindric corona, contracted at the base, sometimes slightly urceolate (base diameter: ±5.5 mm; upper diameter: ±10 mm), from 3.3-3.5 cm in length (excl. appendages), inserted at the furthest point of the perianth tube, and with 5 basal openings, of a linear form and from 5.5-7 mm in length, that correspond to the non-welded stamenal areas; the very short free portions of the filaments are detached from its apex, from each of whose sides emerge pairs of lateral, reflex appendages, much longer than the anthers; said appendages correspond to the free terminal portions of the wings of each stamen, which, as has already been said, are completely interwelded, except for the 5 basal openings alluded to; anthers from 8 to 11 mm in length, inserted slightly lower than their half-height, on a portion of the filament that is free, oblique or horizontal, from barely 1 mm in length; lateral appendages from 8.5-10 mm in length, each one being welded in a small basal zone of 1 to 2.5 mm, with the appendage attached to the neighboring stamen. Curved ovary from 1.1 to 1.4 cm in length by 0.45 to 0.55 cm in width, each locule with 2 rows of numerous ovules; long cylindrical style, exceeding the apices [tips] of the perianth pieces; greenish, trifid stigma with slightly curved unequal lacinias, from 2.2 to 3.8 mm in length. Fruits and seeds not seen.

Obs. I.-The example that follows is a paratype:

ARGENTINA. Salta Prov.: Cachi Dept.: Campo de Tintin [Tintin Field], 3200 m a.s.l., GAROLERA and ROMERO, 21-I-1947 (LIL).

It coincides well with the holotype; the flowers are somewhat larger, with a perianth of 6.7-7.2 cm (tube is 2 cm and lobules are 4.8-5.2 cm), corona of 4 cm (with basal openings of 8.5-10.5 mm), etc.; the anthers are minor (4.5-5.5 mm) probably because they had already experienced dehiscence. It also does not have ripe fruits.

Obs. II.-This is about a very attractive species, because of its large yellow and perfumed flowers. In an equal manner to the type species of the genus, it presents a notably developed corona, with the anthers nearly seated along its interior superior edge (with each of the [pg. 11] pairs of lateral appendages), and 5 subbasal openings. The latter is an extremely important characteristic, which went unnoticed by PAX (1890: 327)3, when he published the genus, and by CASTELLANOS (1933: 494)4 when he emended it, probably because of the ease with which rips/tears are produced when the dried materials are hydrated for dissection; in the isotype (LORENTZ 449) of Hieronymiella clidanthoides  PAX  preserved in the Córdoba Herbarium, I have proved that-contrary to the original description and sheet [print?]3-the stamens are welded forming a cupuliform corona, conforming with the correction published by CASTELLANOS (l.c.); but furthermore, there also exist the openings corresponding to the unwelded areas within the stamens. This fact has well-known importance because it obliges us to re-emend the general diagnosis and throws out the validity of Eustephiopsis FRIES. What is variable is the length of the zone of stamenal attachment: from barely 2.5-3 mm, or rather, somewhat less than the anthers (for example, in the isotype and other materials originating in Salta), up to some 10 mm, or rather, approximately double that of the anthers (in A. T. HUNZIKER 13224: San Juan Prov., between Marayes and Nueva Castilla); correlatively, the length is greater than or less than that of the interstamenal openings. I reserve for the next article, announced at the beginning, the transference of the epithets proposed for Eustephiopsis that should move to Hieronymiella because, before this problem in nomenclature, we desire to clarify the taxonomy of the respective species.

Obs. III.-The differences between H. clidanthoides and H. tintinensis are large, and they are enumerated below; as can be noticed, they show within the genus, the same as in Hippeastrum, 2 evolutionary lines: one with long perianth tubes and the other with short tubes.


1. Perianth of 9.5-14.5 cm in length, with a long tube, equal to or bigger than the lobules; of a pure white color, or with a few faint purple spots/marks, which spread and intensify after anthesis. Corona (excl. appendages) of 1-3.2 cm in length, between 3 and 4 times shorter than the perianth lobules. Leaves of 0.4-0.6 cm in width, [inflexible/unsecured?], and with a smooth/straight edge. 					H. clidanthoides [pg. 12] 1'. Perianth of 5.5-7.2 cm in length, with a short tube, smaller than the lobules; yellow in color. Corona (excl. appendages) of 3.3-4 cm in length, somewhat shorter than the perianth lobules. Leaves of 1-2.2 cm in width, barely curved, with rough/uneven edges and papiliform protrusions towards the apex/tip. 					H. tintinensis

3 F. PAX. 1890. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Amaryllidaceae. Bot. Jahrb. 11: 318-337. Taf. VII. 4 A. CASTELLANOS. 1933. Notas fanerogámicas. Physis 11: 494-495.

=============================================================================== [P. 344] KURTZIANA   5: 343-367   Córdoba, 1969



I. MATERIALS FOR BETTER KNOWLEDGE OF Hieronymiella.....344 1. Description of the genus.....344 2. Differential key of the sections, species, and varieties.....346 3. Description of the sections, species, and varieties.....346 4. Dubious name.....359 II. NEW ARGENTINE SPECIES OF Zephyranthes.....359 1. Z. kurzii nov. sp......361 2. Z. tucumanensis nov. sp. ....362 3. Rediscovery of Z. bakeriana in Paraguay, and its existence in Argentina.....365 III. SUMMARY.....366

In presenting this third submission of my studies on Amaryllidaceae, I am pleased to put on record my profound gratitude to those who made this possible, continuously sending me generous remittances of bulbs and seeds. These include the following colleagues and friends: .

As in the previous submissions in this series, the indicated measurements refer to fresh material, or in liquid preservatives, or, if they are from an herbarium, previously soaked/steeped.

1 The previous submission was published in Kurtziana 4: 7-18, f. 1-3. 1967. Contribution to the knowledge of the "Flora of Central Argentina" (Sponsored by INTA-CAPFTA, plan #1007). The illustrations were done by the artist Prof. LEONOR SANCHEZ. 2 Affiliate of the Office of Scientific Investigator (National Council of Scientific and Technical Investigation, Buenos Aries).


Since I published, in 1967, my contribution on the genus Hieronymiella, new materials have flowered in the collection of bulbs I maintain, which have allowed me to elaborate a taxonomic scheme on the genus. Notwithstanding its provisional nature, I think it convenient to make it known now, since the data it contains clarify, in good measure, the relationships of Hieronymiella with several related genera and permit me to call attention to problems awaiting solution.


Hieronymiella PAX emend. CASTELL.

A. CASTELLANOS, Physis 11: 494. 1935. Because he studied live material, the Argentine botanist was able to correct the original description, demonstrating that the wings of the filaments are welded amongst themselves; the original description and figure, to the contrary, mentioned independent stamens (Bot. Jahrb. 11: 327, Taf. 5-8, 1890). Another important general characteristic is the existence of 5 solutions of continuity in the corona (in the form of linear openings), which correspond to  areas that are not welded between two consecutive stamens; it was not observed by CASTELLANOS (l.c.), and I recently placed it in evidence (op cit., 1967).

Bulbs with contractile roots, and a large neck of about 10 to 20 cm, or, sometimes, up to 30 cm in length, linear leaves, grooved (cross-section in the shape of a more-or-less closed U), from 2 to 12 mm in width, generally with an evanescent apex, and well-formed when flowering occurs. Solid scape, compressed, slight/small with 2 subacute [not quite sharp?] edges; spathe with 2 free valves. Perianth with tube larger than the sepals and petals; insertion level of the latter somewhat higher than that of the former; internal face of the sepals with a brief, retrorse[pointing or curved backwards or inward] appendage below the apical mucro[a short abrupt point]. Almost completely welded stamens in a large corona; this, with 5 short linear openings, which correspond to the unwelded zones of the filament wings of 2 adjacent stamens; oblong, /dorsifija/ anthers, which when dry after dehiscence are 3 times shorter than before, inserted on the corona almost at the same height, if the [opposipetals] are attached at a level somewhat superior to the [p. 345] 3 remaining  [opposisepals]; the free and filiform[thread-like] portion of the filaments almost negligible (up to 1 mm in length); on both sides of the insertion of each anther there is a pair of lateral oblong appendages (which correspond to the free terminal parts of the wings of each stamen); each one of  these appendages can remain independent or, as is common, is welded (up to 1/4 to almost 1/2 its length) with the neighboring appendage of the attached stamen. Ovary with 3 alternating locules and 3 nectaries; each locule with 2 rows of numerous ovules; very long style, a little shorter than the perianth; trifid stigma, with long, oblong stigmatic /lacinias/[deep segments]. Numerous seeds.

Type species: Hieronymiella clidanthoides PAX emend. CASTELL.

Obs.- Within the genera of northwestern Argentina with solid scapes and stamens with winged filaments, Hieronymiella is similar to Eustephia CAV. and Castellanoa TRAUB. The latter is a very little known monotypic genus, because ever since FRIES (Nov. Act. Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal. Ser. 4, 1 (1): 161, Taf. 9, f. 3-4, 1905) brought to our knowledge the species that typifies it from the nomenclature point of view-with the name Hippeastrum marginatum R. E. FRIES-, no one has added new data, nor corrected some of those that the Swedish botanist originally contributed about its floral morphology3; that is why we might say about this rare plant of the Puna region: It is subject to confirmation until it is rediscovered and cultivated. It appears to coincide with Hieronymiella because of its heteromorphous /androceo/[male parts, stamens], with 3 long stamens and 3 short, and because these are welded among themselves; but above all else it would differ in that the corona that results from this interstaminal welding, would be attached, from extremity to extremity, to the perianth, while in Hieronymiella the corona is independent (except for its attachment to the perianth along the basal edge)4. Finally, with reference to Eustephia, its differences with Castellanoa and Hieronymiella seem to be clear: Its stamens are of equal length and free [unwelded] among themselves. On the other hand, the affinity of Hieronymiella with Hymenocallis SALISB. and Stenomesson HERB. is large, but, in either case, the respective differences are obvious.

3 There appear to be 2 observation errors that should be amended: That the stamens are free [unwelded], and that its filaments are not winged-dentate. 4 These observations are based on flower paths/tracks of 2 isotypes (CLAREN, Herb. KURTZ 11559; CORD and BAF) of Hippeastrum marginatum R. E. FRIES.


1. Hieronymiella tintinensis A. T. HUNZIKER

A. T. HUNZIKER, Kurtziana 4: 18, f. 1. December 20, 1967. With a date of October 31 of 1967 there was published without figures (Sellowia 19: 34) H. aurea RAVENNA; the description that supports this name consists of 17 lines, and alludes exclusively to one dried 7-8-flower scape, collected by C. SPEGAZZINI, in January 1897, in Amblayo (Salta Prov.). The author affirms that, furthermore, he was able to study live material obtained by himself in the same location, but he does not indicate a date of re-collection nor any other additional data; if that is the case, the following question logically follows: Why did he omit the characteristics of the bulbs and the leaves of the paratype, organs both missing in the holotype? If it appears well-evident that he is dealing with the same species (the differences in the description of H.  aurea are not important-for example: that the scape is circular-, and, without a doubt, they should be attributed to observation errors due to the poorness of the material studied), I prefer to continue using, for the time being, a name that is not suspect from any point of view (it goes without saying that this affirmation has no ethical or moral implications, since the Code of Nomenclature, at least for the time being, completely ignores them); the lack of illustrations of H. aurea explain [are the reason for] this attitude/position/stand, and the fact that I still wasn't able to review the respective nomenclatural type.

Common name.-"Amancay"5

5 I owe this piece of  information to don Manuel Carrasco-in charge of the Appraisal Station of La Punilla, near Cafayate-who cleared up for me that such a name is used in the Calchaquia(?) valleys.

The inclusion of this species in the Section Eustephiopsis is debatable; because of its corona, with a welded zone much greater than the very small linear apertures, as well as because of its very short filaments (which make the appendages go beyond the anthers), H. tintinensis is more similar to H. clidanthoides; nevertheless, provisionally, and until no further new arguments are likely-over [p. 351] all references to the karyotypes-, I opt to place it in this latter section for the following reasons:

1st) Structure of the corona: the stamens-with its filaments well-differentiated from its wings-, show the same basic curvature, upon insertion on the /corolino/[corollate?] tube, that characterizes the species of Sect. Eustephiopsis6; on the contrary, in H. clidanthoides the corona is straight on the interior, and on the stamens there is no difference between the filaments and the wings in the strict sense.

2nd) Insertion level of the perianth  cycles: While in the section Eustephiopsis the petals are inserted almost at the same level as the sepals, in the section Hieronymiella there exists a comparatively long internode (from 2 to 4 mm) between both cycles of the perianth.

3rd) Short /corolino/[corolla?] tube: Even though the perianth tube of H. tintinensis is longer than that  of the species in Sect. Eustephiopsis, it is contained almost 3 times in the sepals and petals; on the other hand, H. clidanthoides calls attention to its flowers with long tubes, always greater than the rest of the perianth.

For both its general aspect, as well as its color and fragrance, the flower of this species reminds one much, at first glance, of the flower of Hymenocallis amancaes (R. et P.) NICHOLSON; but, as it is analyzed in more depth, the differences are great, as much in the structure of the corona as in that of the perianth, the stigma, etc.

6 This characteristic probably influences the ease with which pollinating agents can shift, in search of nectar, to the bottom of the tube, since in the section Eustephiopsis this gets destroyed by the style, which fits tightly in the space left by the curved stamens. In this respect, it calls attention, in H. clidanthoides, to the quantity of small /silíceas/[silica?] particles and particles of other nature that continue accumulating on top of the ovary, precisely because of the lack of obstacles along the length of the internal surface of the flower.

=============================================================================== [pg. 79] KURTZIANA   8: 79-84   Córdoba, December 1975



1 The previous submission was published in Kurtziana 6: 261-263. 1971. Contribution to the knowledge of the "Flora of Central Argentina"; this investigation is economically supported by the International Biology Program (CONICET), and until 1974 it was by the National Institute of  Farming Technology. 2 Member of the Office of Investigator, CONICET, Bueno Aires.

=============================================================================== [pg. 153] KURTZIANA   24: 153-155   Córdoba, August 1995



1 Albrechstr. 115, 12167 Berlin. Germany. 2 Member of the Office of Scientific Investigator and member of the IMBIV (Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology: Natl. Univ. of Córdoba-CONICET). Postal address: Museo Botánico [Botanical Museum], Casilla de Correo 495, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina.

=============================================================================== Differential key for the species of Hieronymiella:

1. Whitish (at times somewhat pinkish) perianth with a long tube, equal to or greater than the unwelded part. 		1. H. clidanthoides Pax

1'. A very colored perianth, with a short tube, contained between 2 and 8 times in the unwelded part.

2. Fragrant flowers, whitish or yellow; trifid stigma (stigmatic branches between 4 and 6 times longer than they are wide).

3. Yellow perianth, from 5.5 to 6.5 cm in length. Corona almost as long as the perianth, and with appendages that exceed the anthers. Scapes with 4 to 7 flowers. 		2.  H. tintinensis Hunz. (syn., H. aurea, Ravenna)

3'. Whitish perianth (furthermore, on each perianth segment is a narrow longitudinal greenish stripe, and the ribs are generally /lilácea/[lilac?] or purple), from 3.2 to 5.2 cm in length. Corona that is not quite 2/3 the length of the perianth, and with short appendages that are easily exceeded by the anthers. 		3. H. speciosa (R. E. Fries) Hunz.

2'. Unscented reddish-yellowish, or reddish-greenish-purple, flowers; trilobed or barely split stigma, (when they exist, the stigmatic branches are up to 2 times longer than they are wide).

3. Glaucous, pruinose leaves. Perianth tube (from 0.75 to 0.8 cm in length) barely longer than the ovary. Perianth with 3 colors: on the inside of the petals, deep purple at the tip, green in the middle section, whitish at the base, and on the outside of the petals, the same, save that they are a reddish-salmon color at the base. 		4. H. pamiana (Stapf) Hunz. (syn., Eustephia pamiana)

3'. Dark-green, non-pruinose leaves. Perianth tube (0.35 to 0.45 cm in length) shorter than the ovary.

4. Perianth with 3 colors: in the 2/3 to 3/4 up from the base, reddish on the outside, and yellowish or pinkish-yellowish on the inside; the remaining part, on the inside and on the outside, a dark-green color, except for the edge which is deep purple. 	

5. H. marginata (Pax) Hunz.

4'. Perianth with 2 colors: reddish on the outside, between yellowish and orange on the inside. 		
6. H. argentina (Pax) Hunz. et S. Arroyo-L. (syn., Eustephia argentina, Pax., Eustephiopsis latifolia, R. E. Fries, Eustephia latifolia, (R. E. Fries) Traub, Hieronymiella marginata var. latifolia, (R. E. Fries) Hunz., Hieronymiella latifolia, (R. E. Fries) Di Fulvio et Hunz., Androstephanos tarijensis, Fern. Casas and Lara)

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