Geophytes

Mark Mazer markemazer@gmail.com
Fri, 08 Feb 2019 15:54:40 PST
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/…


On Fri, Feb 8, 2019 at 4:34 PM mark akimoff <makimoff76@gmail.com> wrote:

> Thanks everyone for the great brainstorming on the evolution of geophytes,
> soil types, presence or absence of toxic compounds, grazing pressure,
> digging and burrowing animals, environmental changes, etc. etc. all of
> these will make a great presentation topic and a way to introduce
> evolutionary adaptations to students in a STEM curriculum.
>
> Mark
>
> On Fri, Feb 8, 2019 at 1:21 PM GEORGE STEWART <george_stewart@bigpond.com>
> wrote:
>
> > An old but useful book is   Tuberous Cormous Bulbs
> >
> > by John Pate and Kingsley Dixon;
> >
> > publisher:///UWA/ Publishing, 1982
> >
> > It covers Western Australian species but most of the information can be
> > generalised to species from other parts of the world.
> >
> > George Stewart
> >
> > ------ Original Message ------
> > From: pbs-request@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net
> > To: pbs@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net
> > Sent: Friday, 8 Feb, 2019 At 8:42 AM
> > Subject: pbs Digest, Vol 24, Issue 6
> >
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> > Today's Topics:
> >
> >     1. Evolution of geophytes? (mark akimoff)
> >     2. Re: Evolution of geophytes? (Giant Coreopsis)
> >     3. Re: Evolution of geophytes? (mark akimoff)
> >     4. Re: Evolution of geophytes? (Jane McGary)
> >     5. Re: Evolution of geophytes? (Tom Elias)
> >     6. Re: Evolution of geophytes? (Jim McKenney)
> >     7. Asarum canadense sun tolerance (Dennis Kramb)
> >     8. Small World (Judy Glattstein)
> >
> >
> > ----------------------------------------------------------------------
> >
> > Message: 1
> > Date: Thu, 7 Feb 2019 09:28:45 -0800
> > From: mark akimoff <makimoff76@gmail.com>
> > To: Pacific Bulb Society <pbs@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net>
> > Subject: [pbs] Evolution of geophytes?
> > Message-ID:
> >         <
> > CAGOPR+cG++RiV_bW4YFzpTuGkht2s_GXM2ihOJx6C032GXp+oA@mail.gmail.com>
> > Content-Type: text/plain; charset="UTF-8"
> >
> > Hello,
> >
> > I'm wanting to put together an introductory power point on the evolution
> > of
> > geophytes to be used in STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Math)
> > outreach at local schools. I'm interested in the story telling aspect of
> > it, and Martyn Rix' "Growing Bulbs" has a great introductory chapter on
> > the
> > evolution of flowers that covers things like the Crocus, and
> > subterranean
> > ovaries as an adaptation to grazing pressure. Or for instance, fall
> > blooming speciation as an adaptation to  seasonal migration of grazing
> > herds across elevational gradients.
> >
> > Beyond that book does anyone have any other books, articles, ideas,
> > theories, etc? That might be useful in introducing evolution of
> > geophytes
> > as a curriculum? I'm leaning towards tying it in to current issues like
> > zeric adaptations for changing climate or pollution tolerance, that sort
> > of
> > thing.
> >
> > Any help from this brain trust would be much appreciated!
> >
> > Thanks,
> > Mark Akimoff
> > illahe
> > Salem, Oregon
> >
> >
> > ------------------------------
> >
> > Message: 2
> > Date: Thu, 7 Feb 2019 10:26:04 -0800
> > From: Giant Coreopsis <giantcoreopsis@gmail.com>
> > To: Pacific Bulb Society <pbs@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net>
> > Subject: Re: [pbs] Evolution of geophytes?
> > Message-ID: <D84A07E6-2956-4EC0-87B5-EEABB3015F64@gmail.com>
> > Content-Type: text/plain;       charset=utf-8
> >
> > I have a slim-ish volume called ?The evolution of plants? by Willis and
> > McElwain. I can send you snapshots of the table of contents / index in a
> > private message if you?re interested.
> >
> > On Feb 7, 2019, at 9:28 AM, mark akimoff <makimoff76@gmail.com> wrote:
> >
> > Hello,
> >
> > I'm wanting to put together an introductory power point on the evolution
> > of
> > geophytes to be used in STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Math)
> > outreach at local schools. I'm interested in the story telling aspect of
> > it, and Martyn Rix' "Growing Bulbs" has a great introductory chapter on
> > the
> > evolution of flowers that covers things like the Crocus, and
> > subterranean
> > ovaries as an adaptation to grazing pressure. Or for instance, fall
> > blooming speciation as an adaptation to  seasonal migration of grazing
> > herds across elevational gradients.
> >
> > Beyond that book does anyone have any other books, articles, ideas,
> > theories, etc? That might be useful in introducing evolution of
> > geophytes
> > as a curriculum? I'm leaning towards tying it in to current issues like
> > zeric adaptations for changing climate or pollution tolerance, that sort
> > of
> > thing.
> >
> > Any help from this brain trust would be much appreciated!
> >
> > Thanks,
> > Mark Akimoff
> > illahe
> > Salem, Oregon
> > _______________________________________________
> > pbs mailing list
> > pbs@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net
> > http://lists.pacificbulbsociety.net/cgi-bin/…
> >
> >
> > ------------------------------
> >
> > Message: 3
> > Date: Thu, 7 Feb 2019 10:30:25 -0800
> > From: mark akimoff <makimoff76@gmail.com>
> > To: Pacific Bulb Society <pbs@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net>
> > Subject: Re: [pbs] Evolution of geophytes?
> > Message-ID:
> >         <
> > CAGOPR+dSJDuRuxQNLnPHez_bboVqnqd-MUtB3+d-dOMgMOEyhg@mail.gmail.com>
> > Content-Type: text/plain; charset="UTF-8"
> >
> > Thanks,
> >
> > That would be great! I'm gathering all resources!
> >
> > Mark
> >
> > On Thu, Feb 7, 2019 at 10:26 AM Giant Coreopsis
> > <giantcoreopsis@gmail.com>
> > wrote:
> >
> > > I have a slim-ish volume called ?The evolution of plants? by Willis
> > > and
> > > McElwain. I can send you snapshots of the table of contents / index in
> > > a
> > > private message if you?re interested.
> > >
> > > On Feb 7, 2019, at 9:28 AM, mark akimoff <makimoff76@gmail.com> wrote:
> > >
> > > Hello,
> > >
> > > I'm wanting to put together an introductory power point on the
> > > evolution of
> > > geophytes to be used in STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Math)
> > > outreach at local schools. I'm interested in the story telling aspect
> > > of
> > > it, and Martyn Rix' "Growing Bulbs" has a great introductory chapter
> > > on the
> > > evolution of flowers that covers things like the Crocus, and
> > > subterranean
> > > ovaries as an adaptation to grazing pressure. Or for instance, fall
> > > blooming speciation as an adaptation to  seasonal migration of grazing
> > > herds across elevational gradients.
> > >
> > > Beyond that book does anyone have any other books, articles, ideas,
> > > theories, etc? That might be useful in introducing evolution of
> > > geophytes
> > > as a curriculum? I'm leaning towards tying it in to current issues
> > > like
> > > zeric adaptations for changing climate or pollution tolerance, that
> > > sort of
> > > thing.
> > >
> > > Any help from this brain trust would be much appreciated!
> > >
> > > Thanks,
> > > Mark Akimoff
> > > illahe
> > > Salem, Oregon
> > > _______________________________________________
> > > pbs mailing list
> > > pbs@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net
> > > http://lists.pacificbulbsociety.net/cgi-bin/…
> > > _______________________________________________
> > > pbs mailing list
> > > pbs@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net
> > > http://lists.pacificbulbsociety.net/cgi-bin/…
> > >
> >
> >
> > ------------------------------
> >
> > Message: 4
> > Date: Thu, 7 Feb 2019 11:09:55 -0800
> > From: Jane McGary <janemcgary@earthlink.net>
> > To: pbs@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net
> > Subject: Re: [pbs] Evolution of geophytes?
> > Message-ID: <ba1fe838-b17a-fa43-0cf6-a8bc2b50fe97@earthlink.net>
> > Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8; format=flowed
> >
> > The ways in which bulbs multiply often seem to be adaptations to
> > environmental conditions. For instance, the production of numerous tiny,
> > loosely attached offsets (such as "rice grains" in some Fritillaria) is
> > often associated with predation by digging animals such as bears and
> > humans (e.g., consumers of Fritillaria camtschatcensis, Brodiaea
> > californica, Camassia). The interesting bulb of Lilium pardalinum, which
> > is elongated with very numerous scales, may reflect its typical habitat
> > near mountain streams, where the bulb might be dislodged and distributed
> > in spring. In both cases, the forms that bore many viable bulblets or
> > scales would tend over time to dominate the population.
> >
> > Mark mentions Crocus and its subterranean ovary. You can tell when
> > crocuses are ready to have their seed harvested because the capsule
> > rather suddenly rises above soil level on a stem, so that the seeds will
> > scatter. In nature one usually sees crocuses growing as scattered
> > individuals, not the tight clonal clusters found in cultivation --
> > perhaps a respnse to burrowing predators.
> >
> > Jane McGary, Portland, Oregon, USAOn 2/7/2019 10:30 AM, mark akimoff
> > wrote:
> >
> > > On Feb 7, 2019, at 9:28 AM, mark akimoff <makimoff76@gmail.com> wrote:
> > >> Hello,
> > >>
> > >> I'm wanting to put together an introductory power point on the
> > >> evolution of
> > >> geophytes to be used in STEM (Science Technology Engineering and
> > >> Math)
> > >> outreach at local schools. I'm interested in the story telling aspect
> > >> of
> > >> it, and Martyn Rix' "Growing Bulbs" has a great introductory chapter
> > >> on the
> > >> evolution of flowers that covers things like the Crocus, and
> > >> subterranean
> > >> ovaries as an adaptation to grazing pressure. Or for instance, fall
> > >> blooming speciation as an adaptation to  seasonal migration of
> > >> grazing
> > >> herds across elevational gradients.
> > >>
> > >> Beyond that book does anyone have any other books, articles, ideas,
> > >> theories, etc? That might be useful in introducing evolution of
> > >> geophytes
> > >> as a curriculum? I'm leaning towards tying it in to current issues
> > >> like
> > >> zeric adaptations for changing climate or pollution tolerance, that
> > >> sort of
> > >> thing.
> > >>
> > >> Any help from this brain trust would be much appreciated!
> > >>
> > >> Thanks,
> > >> Mark Akimoff
> > >> illahe
> > >> Salem, Oregon
> > >> _______________________________________________
> > >> pbs mailing list
> > >> pbs@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net
> > >> http://lists.pacificbulbsociety.net/cgi-bin/…
> > >> _______________________________________________
> > >> pbs mailing list
> > >> pbs@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net
> > >> http://lists.pacificbulbsociety.net/cgi-bin/…
> > >>
> > > _______________________________________________
> > > pbs mailing list
> > > pbs@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net
> > > http://lists.pacificbulbsociety.net/cgi-bin/…
> >
> >
> > ------------------------------
> >
> > Message: 5
> > Date: Thu, 7 Feb 2019 19:16:55 +0000
> > From: Tom Elias <tselias@msn.com>
> > To: Pacific Bulb Society <pbs@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net>
> > Subject: Re: [pbs] Evolution of geophytes?
> > Message-ID:
> >
> > <
> >
> BYAPR07MB6135B0157CD64F2D906133DAB0680@BYAPR07MB6135.namprd07.prod.outlook.com
> > >
> >
> > Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"
> >
> > Mark:
> >     You may also want to investigate the presence of toxic secondary
> > compounds such as alkaloids in geophytes.  I know for example that
> > Irises are abundant in the extensive steppes of Siberia.  This is a
> > major location for the evolution of large herbivores.   Tulips are also
> > found here along with other bulbous plants.  I know that Irises are
> > loaded with alkaloids and poisonous to gracing animals.  But, I do not
> > know about the toxicity of Tulips and other bulbous plants found there.
> > This is one of several mechanisms that plants have developed to
> > successfully compete and survive.
> >
> > Tom
> >
> > ________________________________
> > From: pbs <pbs-bounces@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net> on behalf of mark
> > akimoff <makimoff76@gmail.com>
> > Sent: Thursday, February 7, 2019 9:28 AM
> > To: Pacific Bulb Society
> > Subject: [pbs] Evolution of geophytes?
> >
> > Hello,
> >
> > I'm wanting to put together an introductory power point on the evolution
> > of
> > geophytes to be used in STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Math)
> > outreach at local schools. I'm interested in the story telling aspect of
> > it, and Martyn Rix' "Growing Bulbs" has a great introductory chapter on
> > the
> > evolution of flowers that covers things like the Crocus, and
> > subterranean
> > ovaries as an adaptation to grazing pressure. Or for instance, fall
> > blooming speciation as an adaptation to  seasonal migration of grazing
> > herds across elevational gradients.
> >
> > Beyond that book does anyone have any other books, articles, ideas,
> > theories, etc? That might be useful in introducing evolution of
> > geophytes
> > as a curriculum? I'm leaning towards tying it in to current issues like
> > zeric adaptations for changing climate or pollution tolerance, that sort
> > of
> > thing.
> >
> > Any help from this brain trust would be much appreciated!
> >
> > Thanks,
> > Mark Akimoff
> > illahe
> > Salem, Oregon
> > _______________________________________________
> > pbs mailing list
> > pbs@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net
> >
> >
> https://nam01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com//…
> >
> >
> > ------------------------------
> >
> > Message: 6
> > Date: Thu, 7 Feb 2019 20:29:35 +0000 (UTC)
> > From: Jim McKenney <jamesamckenney@verizon.net>
> > To: Pacific Bulb Society <pbs@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net>
> > Subject: Re: [pbs] Evolution of geophytes?
> > Message-ID: <183874394.4843201.1549571375389@mail.yahoo.com>
> > Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8
> >
> >   Note that the ovaries of most (or all?) colchicums and crocuses are
> > underground at bloom time and in colchicums the ovary is raised up above
> > the surface within the foliage as it develops. In most crocuses, the
> > seed capsule is pushed up out of the ground when the seeds are
> > ripe.?Among crocuses, Crocus korolkowii produces seed capsules which
> > remain underground.?Jim McKenneyMontgomery County, Maryland, USA, USDA
> > zone 7, where the first of the late winter crocuses might appear any day
> > now.?
> >     http://bulbsociety.net/cgi-bin/mailman/…
> >
> >
> > |
> > |
> > |  |
> > pbs Info Page
> >
> >
> >   |
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> >
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> >
> >
> >
> > ------------------------------
> >
> > Message: 7
> > Date: Thu, 07 Feb 2019 15:49:02 -0500
> > From: Dennis Kramb <dkramb@badbear.com>
> > To: Pacific Bulb Society <pbs@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net>
> > Subject: [pbs] Asarum canadense sun tolerance
> > Message-ID:
> >         <mailman.27.1549572547.519.pbs@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net>
> > Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8
> >
> > Near my property line I have cultivated a lovely and large patch of
> > Asarum canadense in the shade of my neighbors pine trees.? The first
> > plants originally appeared all on their own about twenty years ago.?
> > New neighbors have seen fit to chop all those trees down last week (at
> > the peak of the polar vortex no less). So now the plants are in full
> > sun.
> > Is a shade screen necessary for them to survive?
> > Dennis in Cincinnati
> >
> > ------------------------------
> >
> > Message: 8
> > Date: Thu, 7 Feb 2019 16:42:16 -0500
> > From: Judy Glattstein <jgglatt@gmail.com>
> > To: pbs@lists.pacificbulbsociety.net
> > Subject: [pbs] Small World
> > Message-ID: <9590ddc9-8940-a53f-b289-62346413a9c6@gmail.com>
> > Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"; Format="flowed"
> >
> > The small world and making connections.
> >
> > I looked up walipini. The entry mentioned that the term refers to an
> > earth-sheltered cold frame. It derives its name from the Aymaran
> > languages.
> >
> > My brother did his doctoral research in the Peruvian Andes lo these many
> > years ago. He learned both Quechua and Aymara languages. So of course I
> > asked him about this.
> >
> > His reply:
> > "Wali- is an Aymara root that means 'good.' Waliskiw means, things are
> > good. Not sure about the -pini suffix. The cab driver that my brother
> > and his wife had back from JFK was a Bolivian, grew up with
> > Quechua-speaking parents, still knows it. He said he'd never had a
> > Quechua-speaking customer before in his 35 years of driving. "
> >
> > Where were they coming back from? He had been at a conference in Durban.
> > His wife came along. After the conference they took a long week in Cape
> > Town, went to Kirstenbosh, up Table Mountain, etc. Most of the pictures
> > he sent to me (taken with his iPhone) are not of interest to me and you.
> > Here are three that make the cut. I'm pretty sure about the scadoxus.
> > And is watsonia correct?
> >
> > Judy in NJ where the living history farm is scheduled to start tapping
> > sugar maples this Saturday. And I've seen two different flocks of
> > robins.
> >
> >
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