Oxalis

Oxalis is a huge genus of about 270 species within 6 subgenera of the family Oxalidaceae found in many parts of the world, but with a large number found in South Africa and South America. Oxalis was the subject of the PBS list topic of the week in November 2003. To read the introduction by Robin Attrill for this topic view this link. Another post with a lot of good background information on this subject was in this list post from David Victor. For the most recent comprehensive information about the names of the species see Clifton, 2004 in References. Some of the species do not fit the criteria for inclusion on the wiki, and there is great variety in the ones that have storage organs (bulbs, tubers, rhizomes, tap roots) that can be included. For ease of comparison, we've gathered a collection of photos of Oxalis storage organs.

Photos 1-2 below taken by Bill Dijk are a collection of Oxalis species painted by botanical artist Zoë Carter from Nelson, New Zealand. Bill has kindly added the names in the second photo. Photos 3-4 show flowers and leaves scanned by Ron Vanderhoff. To see more clearly the leaves identified with the species names click on the higher resolution file. These photos show the great number of flowers that can be in bloom at the same time in his collection and the great diversity of leaf types of this genus. Photo 5 by Nhu Nguyen shows a bouquet of various species.

Oxalis collection by Zoë Carter, Bill DijkOxalis collection by Zoë Carter, Bill DijkOxalis flowers, Ron VanderhoffOxalis leaves identified, Ron VanderhoffOxalis spp., Nhu Nguyen

The genus Oxalis has a reputation as a weed, and a few species really are weeds in parts of the world. But most are not. The late Michael Vassar, Curator of Floristic Gardens at the Huntington Botanical Garden, played a big role in popularizing Oxalis bulb culture by donating several South African collections to charity fund-raisers in the late 1990s. Many of his selections turned out to be relatively easy to grow, but not invasive in the garden. Download a list of his complete collection here. The non-invasiveness of some Oxalis species in cultivation seems to be caused in part by their unusual pollination system.

PBS member Christiaan van Schalkwyk, who gardens in South Africa, shared this on the PBS discussion forum:

South African Oxalis species employ a system of tristyli, that is there are three whorls of styles, two of them bearing anthers and the third the stigma (5 to a whorl). If the uppermost whorl contains the stigma, it is referred to as a longistylar form, mediostylar for the middle and brevistylar if at the bottom. Not all Oxalis species seem to employ tristyli, but it is common in the bulbous forms. (Most Oxalis from the Americas are either weedy, i.e. without a bulb, or have more or less a rhizomatous underground structure. Most (all) South African Oxalis have true bulbs, and tristyli is the rule for sexual reproduction.) I presume that there might be exceptions, as always.

Only flowers with two different stylar forms can be pollinated to form seeds. Thus if you have two different clones of the same species, but both are of the same stylar form, they are sterile towards each other.

Often only one stylar form is available (for example because only one plant/bulb is collected or because one stylar form exhibits better characteristics from a cultivator's point of view (i.e. bigger, brighter, taller flowers), or the one stylar form is more vigorous than the other and the weaker does not get distributed). Personally I think this is an excellent state of affairs, because it precludes seed forming which could otherwise turn quite a few species real weedy real quick. (I am still battling to get rid of O. haedulipes. This one is "a local" and managed to get into nearly every pot of plants I have. Luckily the bulbs are quite distinctive and can be culled during transplanting). Also think of the pest O. pes-caprae have become in some parts of the world, and that only by vegetative reproduction. Think of the havoc if it could set seeds as well).

The first picture below is of the different stylar forms, longistylar, mediostylar and brevistylar, in that sequence (O. annae) The second show a seedpod of O. flava var fabifolia, with some fresh seeds and a three day old seedling. The white stuff are "pseudoseeds" (actually don't recall the correct term right now). They are found in-between the seeds and absorbs moisture when the seeds are ripe, and this then forces the capsule to explode and helps to shoot the seeds a great distance. The third shows some seedlings, a few days old. The top fabifolia, the bottom a more convetional flava.

Oxalis stylar forms, Christiaan van SchalkwykOxalis seeds, Christiaan van SchalkwykOxalis seedlings, Christiaan van Schalkwyk

Some research has suggested that the pollen size of the different stylar morphs differ, whether it has been proven conclusively, I do not know. Whatever the case, heterostyli might be the only barrier to self fertilization, but alas, a camel hair brush is not going to break through it that easily.

To complicate matters, the basic number of chromosomes vary widely between species, with 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 10, 11, and 12 being possibilities. A multitude of ploidy levels are available, sometimes quite restrictive in a particular species, but, as in the case of O. obtusa, about anything is possible(from 2n to 8n plus?). Even plants from the same locality can display different ploidy levels and are thus incompatible. I once saw three very divergent forms of obtusa growing intermingled with each other without any obvious hybrids inbetween. Salter mentions more than 10 species growing and flowering together in nature, without any hybrids seen.

Hybrids between species are unknown. Maybe because of lack of effort and interrest, or maybe because there are too many factors inhibiting pollination. Even when my collection exceeded 80 different accessions of O. obtusa (and about 400 for Oxalis in total), natural seed set were rare, and even hand pollination yielded poor results (bad ploidy selections, I think). The only other Oxalis seedlings I've seen (other than obtusa, haedulipes and that pesky corniculata), are from O flava var fabifolia and O. helicoides. I've heard of O. hirta forming seeds, but it does not grow well for me (actually I do not think I've got any left).

Nhu mentioned that Oxalis seeds are very short lived. More than 60% of the South African species does not have endospermous seed. The need to either fall in a suitable place or be planted within 24 hours to grow. The tiny seedling with two lobes and a small root gets ejected from the seedpod, it starts to grow immediately and it forms true leaves within two days.

O. obtusa does have endospermous seed, and it flowers close to the end of the growing season. I suspect they might last longer, and may even germinate the next season, but I have not investigated it or read about it. Maybe a little experiment is called for....

More information about Oxalis is found on the websites listed below:
Andrew Broome's oxalis site from New Zealand (includes a link to the Oxalis Yahoo group)
Sylvia's site from Sweden has lots of photos of plants she grows in pots because of her climate
Growing Oxalis in California


See these wiki pages Miscellaneous Oxalis - Oxalis articulata - Oxalis flava - Oxalis hirta - Oxalis obtusa - Oxalis pes-caprae - Oxalis purpurea - Oxalis tuberosa - South African oxalis A-B - South African oxalis C -South African oxalis D-E - South African oxalis F-G - South African oxalis H-K - South African oxalis L-M - South African oxalis N-O - South African oxalis P - South African oxalis R-S - South African oxalis T-Z - South American oxalis or click on the name in the table below to learn about some of the species.


Oxalis
Oxalis acetosella, Bob Rutemoeller [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
acetosella
Oxalis adenodes, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
adenodes
Oxalis adenophylla, Bob Rutemoeller [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
adenophylla
Oxalis ambigua MV4967, Mary Sue Ittner [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
ambigua
Oxalis annae, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
annae
Image not available [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
anomala
Oxalis argillacea, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
argillacea
Oxalis articulata ssp. rubra, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
articulata
Oxalis attaquana, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
attaquana
Oxalis bifurca, Moonstone, Cameron McMaster [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
bifurca
Oxalis bowiei, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
bowiei
Oxalis brasiliensis, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
brasiliensis
Oxalis bulbocastanum, Jane McGary [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
bulbocastanum
Oxalis callosa, Bob Rutemoeller [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
callosa
Oxalis caprina, Mary Sue Ittner [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
caprina
Oxalis cathara, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
cathara
Oxalis clavifolia, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
clavifolia
Oxalis commutata, Mary Sue Ittner [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
commutata
Oxalis comosa, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
comosa
Oxalis compressa, Mary Sue Ittner [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
compressa
Oxalis convexula, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
convexula
Oxalis copiosa, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
copiosa
Oxalis debilis var. corymbosa 'Aureoreticulata', Ann [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
debilis
Oxalis decaphylla, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
decaphylla
Oxalis densa, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
densa
Image not available [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
dentata
Oxalis depressa, Mary Sue Ittner [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
depressa
Oxalis dregei, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
dregei
Oxalis engleriana, Mary Sue Ittner [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
engleriana
Oxalis enneaphylla 'Lady Elizabeth', Bob Rutemoeller [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
enneaphylla
Oxalis exserta, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
exserta
Oxalis extensa, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
extensa
Oxalis fabaefolia, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
fabaefolia
Oxalis flava, Bob Rutemoeller [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
flava
Oxalis flaviuscula var longifolia morning, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
flaviuscula
Oxalis floribunda ssp. ostenii, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
floribunda
Oxalis, not fragrans, M. Gastil-Buhl [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
fragrans
Oxalis gigantea, Diane Whitehead [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
gigantea
Oxalis glabra, Lyn Edwards [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
glabra
Oxalis goniorhiza, Mary Sue Ittner [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
goniorhiza
Oxalis gracilis, Mary Sue Ittner [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
gracilis
Oxalis haedulipes, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
haedulipes
Oxalis helicoides, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
helicoides
Oxalis hernandezii, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
hernandezii
Oxalis heterophylla, Middelpos, Cameron McMaster [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
heterophylla
Oxalis hirta, Mary Sue Ittner [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
hirta
Oxalis imbricata, Mary Sue Ittner [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
imbricata
Oxalis inaequalis, Liz Waterman [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
inaequalis
Oxalis incarnata, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
incarnata
Oxalis inconspicua, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
inconspicua
Oxalis kaajagdensis, Michael Mace [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
kaajagdensis
Image not available [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
karooica
Oxalis lasiandra, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
lasiandra
Oxalis latifolia ssp. vespertilionis, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
latifolia
Oxalis lawsonii, Ditshipeng, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
lawsonii
Oxalis lichenoides, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
lichenoides
Oxalis livida Uli76, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
livida
Oxalis luteola MV4960B, Michael Mace [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
luteola
Oxalis macrocarpa, UCBG, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
macrocarpa
Oxalis magnifica, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
magnifica
Oxalis massoniana, Bob Rutemoeller [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
massoniana
Oxalis megalorrhiza, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
megalorrhiza
Oxalis meisneri, Bill Dijk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
meisneri
Oxalis melanosticta 'Ken Aslet', Mary Sue Ittner [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
melanosticta
Oxalis minuta, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
minuta
Oxalis monophylla, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
monophylla
Oxalis morelosii, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
morelosii
Oxalis namaquana, Namaqualand, Mary Sue Ittner [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
namaquana
Oxalis nelsonii, UC Botanical Garden [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
nelsonii
Oxalis novemfoliata, Pan de Azucar, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
novemfoliata
Oxalis obliquifolia, John Lonsdale [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
obliquifolia
Oxalis obtusa flowers, Ron Vanderhoff [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
obtusa
Oxalis oregana, Bob Rutemoeller [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
oregana
Oxalis palmifrons, Sheila Burrow [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
palmifrons
Oxalis pardalis MV7632, Mary Sue Ittner [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
pardalis
Oxalis perdicaria, Mary Sue Ittner [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
perdicaria
Oxalis pes-caprae, Nieuwoudtville, Bob Rutemoeller [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
pes-caprae
Oxalis pocockiae, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
pocockiae
Oxalis polyphylla, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
polyphylla
Oxalis potamophila, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
potamophila
Oxalis primuloides, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
primuloides,
Oxalis pulchella, Koingnaas, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
pulchella
Oxalis purpurea, Tulbagh, Mary Sue Ittner [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
purpurea
Oxalis pusilla, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
pusilla
Oxalis salteri, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
salteri
Oxalis semiloba, Charles Powell [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
semiloba
Oxalis smithiana, Maclear, Mary Sue Ittner [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
smithiana
Oxalis sonderiana, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
sonderiana
Oxalis sp., David Victor [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
sp.
Oxalis sp. in Oaxaca, Mexico, Bob Rutemoeller [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
sp.
Oxalis sp., maybe O. elegans, Johannes-Ulrich Urban [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
spp.
Oxalis stellata, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
stellata
Oxalis stenorrhyncha, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
stenorrhyncha
Oxalis tenella, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
tenella
Oxalis tenuifolia, Bill Dijk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
tenuifolia
Oxalis tetraphylla 'Iron Cross', Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
tetraphylla
Oxalis tomentosa, Bill Dijk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
tomentosa
Oxalis tortuosa, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
tortuosa
Oxalis triangularis, Bob Rutemoeller [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
triangularis
Oxalis tuberosa tubers, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
tuberosa
Oxalis uliginosa, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
uliginosa
Oxalis versicolor, Nhu Nguyen [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
versicolor
Oxalis virginea, Christiaan van Schalkwyk [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
virginea
Oxalis zeekoevleyensis, Bob Rutemoeller [Shift+click to enlarge, Click to go to wiki entry]
zeekoevleyensis

Miscellaneous Oxalis - Oxalis articulata - Oxalis flava - Oxalis hirta - Oxalis obtusa - Oxalis pes-caprae - Oxalis purpurea - Oxalis tuberosa - South African oxalis A-B - South African oxalis C -South African oxalis D-E - South African oxalis F-G - South African oxalis H-K - South African oxalis L-M - South African oxalis N-O - South African oxalis P - South African oxalis R-S - South African oxalis T-Z - South American oxalis


Return to the PBS wiki Photographs And Information page
Page last modified on March 22, 2016, at 05:09 PM