Bletilla Rchb.f. is a genus in the Orchidaceae family. Its native range spans from Tibet in the west throughout China, Taiwan, Korea and Japan, as well as reaching the northern parts of Thailand, Myanmar and Vietnam. The species most often grown is Bletilla striata. Although it is an orchid with delicate-looking flowers, Bletilla striata is a reliable and undemanding plant when grown in a pot.
Like with many other widespread genera there has been some confusion about the number of species. Currently, PlantsOfTheWorldOnline accepts six species, but classifies B. szechuanica and B. yuannensis as synonyms of B. formosana, though both have been utilized in RHS-registered grexes.
Bletilla ochracea is native to Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, China. It is the only yellow Bletilla. It grows well in full sun in the Bay Area where it gets natural rain in the winter and artificial watering during the summer. Plants produce a corm-like resting structure. Photo 1 was taken by Alberto Grossi and photos 2-4 were taken by Nhu Nguyen at the UC Botanical Garden.
Bletilla striata is a terrestrial orchid from China, Taiwan and Japan. The rhizomes will form pseudobulbs half in and half out of the soil from which the leaves and flower stems appear early in the year. It has lance like, ribbed, mid-green leaves and bears bright purple-pink flowers between April and July. Plant in leafy, moist but well-drained soil in light shade in a sheltered site. Needs to be on the dry side in winter when dormant. May also need a winter mulch in regions that get regular frosts. Pot grown, first two photos by Arnold Trachtenberg. Third photo is by Michael Mace, who grows them in California in a pot with good drainage and year-round water. This photo shows the very pronounced ruffles in the throat of the flower. Fourth photo by David Pilling.
I planted the pseudobulbs about four years ago in a border. In winter (I live in the North of Italy and we usually experience -10/-15 °C) I mulch them with dried leaves. I noted that it is frost resistant, but it is very sensitive to late frost. All photos below by Alberto Grossi
Bletilla striata var. alba is not so vigorous as the former.
Bletilla striata 'Soryu', which has blue flowers; photographs by Mari Kitama; Soryu means Blue Dragon.