Lilium Candidum Section

Lilium is a large genus in the Liliaceae family. Information and pictures of species on the pbs wiki are found on section pages linked below. This wiki page is for the Candidum Section. Most, but not all of the species in this section are epigeal (have delayed germination). Stems are erect, leaves scattered, bulb scales are numerous, and the seeds heavy.


American Section A-M - American Section N-Z - Asiatic Section A-C - Asiatic Section D-K - Asiatic Section L-O - Asiatic Section P-Z - Dauricum Section - Martagon Section - Oriental Section - Trumpet Section - Lilium Hybrids - Lilium Index


Lilium albanicum is a Turk's cap lily from Albania and the Balkans. Photo of a bulb by Pontus Wallstén.

Lilium albanicum bulb, Pontus Wallstén

Lilium bulbiferum is a European species with bright orange flowers that blooms in summer. It is named for the stem bulbils it produces above ground. Variety croceum has orange flowers and is the most common form in cultivation. The first photo was taken by Hans Joschko in the French Alps where these plants were growing with Narcissus poeticus along the road from Grenoble to Col de Lautaret. The second photo is from Janos Agoston. Photos 3 and 4 submitted by Darm Crook. Photo 5 of a bulb by Pontus Wallstén.

Lilium bulbiferum, Hans JoschkoLilium bulbiferum var croceum, Janos AgostonLilium bulbiferum, Darm CrookLilium bulbiferum, Darm CrookLilium bulbiferum bulb, Pontus Wallstén

Lilium bulbiferum var. chaixii (Elwes) Stoker This variety occurs in the French Alpes-Maritimes and is by far the shortest of the bulbiferum group growing only to about 32 cm (16 inches) tall. It is also that hardest one to grow; it simply appears to have a weaker immune system, thus catching every disease that comes along. It generally flowers with only one floret in zone 1 Canadian scale growing conditions but in good years will have two. The stems grown in Hay River Northwest Territories prefer a slightly alkalined based soil to acidic. It is a very prolific producer of stem bulbils. Three photos submitted by Darm Crook.

Lilium bulbiferum v. chaixii, Darm CrookLilium bulbiferum v. chaixii, Darm CrookLilium bulbiferum v. chaixii, Darm Crook

Lilium bulbiferum v. croceum (Chaix) Pers. This variety is the easiest one to grow; it is quite disease resistant and seems indifferent to soil pH, within limits of course. It produces no stem bulbils and can, during a good growing season, produce an inflorescence with a double umbel, with each umbel having four to six buds. During germination seeds from the same seed batch, by about a 50/50 split, usually germinate as immediate hypogeal and delayed hypogeal. This germination style split and no stem bulbils indicate that L. bulbiferum v. croceum's true genetic background may not be pure bulbiferum. Photos 1-4 submitted by Darm Crook. Photo 5 of a bulb by Pontus Wallstén.

Lilium bulbiferum v. croceum, Darm CrookLilium bulbiferum v. croceum, Darm CrookLilium bulbiferum v. croceum, Darm CrookLilium bulbiferum v. croceum, Darm CrookLilium bulbiferum v. croceum bulb, Pontus Wallstén

Photos below from Darm Crook are of seedlings that resulted from a cross of L. bulbiferum v. chaixii × L. bulbiferum v. croceum. The cross was made in an effort to save features of v. chaixii but also introduce some disease resistance into it. The resulting seedlings have a little resemblance to v. chaixii in the florets colouration and do produce stem bulbils. They are closer to v. croceum in floret form and plant stature as they grow to a height of 82 cm (40 inches). They have much better resistance to botrytis than v. bulbiferum or the varieties chaixii and croceum have.

Lilium bulbiferum variety cross, Darm CrookLilium bulbiferum variety cross, Darm CrookLilium bulbiferum variety cross, Darm CrookLilium bulbiferum variety cross, Darm Crook

Lilium candidum, the Madonna lily, is native to the Balkans and the eastern Mediterranean. It has been cultivated for many years, and can be grown in most zones. This species has fragrant white flowers with a yellow base and blooms from late spring to early summer. It then dies down and therefore is best planted in late summer when dormant and should be barely covered with soil as it does not have stem roots. A rosette of leaves appears in the autumn and lives over winter. This species prefers limey soil and is not long lived as it is prone to disease.

Lilium candidum var. cernuum Photos 1-5 from Janos Agoston show this variety.

Lilium candidum, new leaves, Janos AgostonLilium candidum leaves, Janos AgostonLilium candidum, Janos AgostonLilium candidum, Janos AgostonLilium candidum, Janos Agoston

Photo 1 by Pontus Wallstén shows a bulb. Photo 2 by David Pilling shows botrytis to which the winter growing foliage makes this species especially susceptible.

Lilium candidum bulb, Pontus WallsténLilium candidum with botrytis, David Pilling

Lilium carniolicum is native to the western Balkans, from northeast Italy to western Bosnia. Synonym Lilium pyrenaicum subsp. carniolicum. Common names are golden apple or Carniolan lily. Sometimes the three species Lilium bosniacum, Lilium albanicum and Lilium jankae have been considered subspecies of Lilium carniolicum. The species takes its name from Carniola which in ancient times was an area in modern day Slovenia. Photos by Pontus Wallstén, taken in Tim Whiteley's garden.

Lilium carniolicum, Pontus WallsténLilium carniolicum, Pontus Wallstén

Lilium chalcedonicum is from Greece and Albania. Chalcedon was an ancient town located near Byzantium and is now a district of Istanbul. The name was given in 1753 by Linnaeus; a synonym is Lilium byzantinum. Photos by Pontus Wallstén, taken in Tim Whiteley's garden.

Lilium chalcedonicum, Pontus WallsténLilium chalcedonicum, Pontus WallsténLilium chalcedonicum, Pontus WallsténLilium chalcedonicum, Pontus WallsténLilium chalcedonicum, Pontus WallsténLilium chalcedonicum, Pontus Wallstén

Photograph of a bulb by Pontus Wallstén.

Lilium chalcedonicum bulb, Pontus Wallstén

Lilium ciliatum is from north east Turkey. Photos of bulbs by Pontus Wallstén.

Lilium ciliatum bulb, Pontus WallsténLilium ciliatum bulb, Pontus WallsténLilium ciliatum bulb, Pontus Wallstén

Lilium ledebourii is from Azerbaijan and the Elburz (Alborz) mountains in Iran, where it grows at between 1000 and 1500 meters. Photographs by Roma Fiddes.

Lilium ledebourii, Roma FiddesLilium ledebourii, Roma FiddesLilium ledebourii, Roma FiddesLilium ledebourii, Roma Fiddes

Lilium monadelphum is from the Caucasus on forest margins and slopes. The seed germination pattern is delayed hypogeal. It can grow to over 120 cm (4feet) and have up to 24 strong but sweet scented down facing florets which range in colour from rich yellow to near white with lilac to black spotting or be spot free. It is an early flowering, cold hardy and disease resistant species, and as such an excellent candidate for areas that have a short growing season. Many say a lily is not L. monadelphum unless the pollen is yellow and the anthers are fused into a tube at their base (the name monadelphum derives from this arrangement). Some botanists think this is not the case and that the formally classified lilies Lilium szovitsianum and Lilium kesselringianum are simply geographic variants of Lilium monadelphum. These two lilies have pollen that is other then yellow and the anthers are not fused at the base. The first photo from Arnold Trachtenberg is of a plant grown in New Jersey. Photos 2 to 10 submitted by Darm Crook.

Lilium monadelphum, Arnold TrachtenbergLilium monadelphum, Darm CrookLilium monadelphum, Darm CrookLilium monadelphum, Darm CrookLilium monadelphum, Darm CrookLilium monadelphum, Darm Crook
Lilium monadelphum, Darm CrookLilium monadelphum, Darm CrookLilium monadelphum, Darm CrookLilium monadelphum, Darm Crook

Bulb photos by Pontus Wallstén. Photo 1 is of a seedling bulb of Lilium kesselringianum, 2 and 3 are bulbs of Lilium monadelphum.

Lilium kesselringianum seedling bulb, Pontus WallsténLilium monadelphum bulb, Pontus WallsténLilium monadelphum bulb, Pontus Wallstén

Lilium pomponium is from Europe, between France and Italy. Photo of a bulb by Pontus Wallstén.

Lilium pomponium bulb, Pontus Wallstén

Lilium pyrenaicum is native to Europe, Turkey and the Caucasus, it is named for the Pyrenees in France. It is naturalised in England and Scotland. There are a number of subspecies some of which are now recognised by some authorities as species. These include var. albanicum, var. bosniacum, ssp. carniolicum, ssp. jankae and ssp. ponticum. Form rubrum has orange-red flowers with brown spots. Photos 1-3 by Roger Darlington of it growing wild in Langdale in the Lake District. Photos 4-6 from Hans Joschko.

Lilium pyrenaicum, Roger DarlingtonLilium pyrenaicum, Roger DarlingtonLilium pyrenaicum, Roger DarlingtonLilium pyrenaicum, Hans JoschkoLilium pyrenaicum, Hans JoschkoLilium pyrenaicum, Hans Joschko

Photos 1-2 below by Darm Crook, photo 3 of a bulb by Pontus Wallstén.

Lilium pyrenaicum, Darm CrookLilium pyrenaicum, Darm CrookLilium pyrenaicum bulb, Pontus Wallstén

Lilium pyrenaicum ssp. ponticum (K.Koch) V.A.Matthews is considered by Kew and Tropicos data bases to be a synonym for Lilium ponticum. From Turkey and Georgia it grows 40 to 75 cm (16 to 30 inches) tall. The foliage leaves are wide and short with fine hairs along margins of the upper side and veins on the lower side. The florets are in a small pendent form, yellow, spotted with spots as well as dashes plus a purple to brown or near black throat and in the center area orange pollen. The tepal backs are flushed with purple near their base. It grows well in dappled shade. Flowers have a pleasant scent. Five seedling photos by Darm Crook.

Lilium pyrenaicum ssp. ponticum, Darm CrookLilium pyrenaicum ssp. ponticum, Darm CrookLilium pyrenaicum ssp. ponticum, Darm CrookLilium pyrenaicum ssp. ponticum, Darm CrookLilium pyrenaicum ssp. ponticum, Darm Crook

Lilium pyrenaicum ssp. ponticum v. artvinense from Turkey Bayburt pass area grows to a height of 75 cm (30 inches) and has up to three dark orange fully recurved florets on arching pedicels. The florets have to a varying degree (from plant to plant) a dark green center and nectary zone, a few dark green spots and bright orange pollen as well a prominent display of papillae. Photos by Darm Crook.

Lilium pyrenaicum ssp. ponticum v. artvinense, Darm CrookLilium pyrenaicum ssp. ponticum v. artvinense, Darm CrookLilium pyrenaicum ssp. ponticum v. artvinense, Darm CrookLilium pyrenaicum ssp. ponticum v. artvinense, Darm CrookLilium pyrenaicum ssp. ponticum v. artvinense, Darm CrookLilium pyrenaicum ssp. ponticum v. artvinense, Darm Crook

Lilium szovitsianum is a very aromatic native to the Caucasus; it was considered a variety of Lilium monadelphum but has recently achieved it's own species status. It grows up to five feet with as many as 16 buds (maybe more). The florets are very similar to L. monadelphum's in size, form and colouration variances. The differences occur in germination in that the cotyledon is shorter; plus in the plant itself, the foliage is sparser then L. monadelphum's foliage and the floret buds are not cradled in the upper foliage making them visible right from their first formings, this is mainly due to the foliage of L. szovitsianum being shorter then L. monadelphum's. In zone one this Lilium takes 7 to 8 years from seed to first flower, and prefers an alkaline based soil but it will tolerate an acidic based soil down to 6.5ph. Six photos submitted by Darm Crook show some colour and spotting variations found in this species and a short budded inflorescence on a young plant.

Lilium szovitsianum, Darm CrookLilium szovitsianum, Darm CrookLilium szovitsianum, Darm CrookLilium szovitsianum, Darm CrookLilium szovitsianum, Darm CrookLilium szovitsianum, Darm Crook

Photo 1 of Lilium szovitsianum by John Lykkegaard Johansen, photo 2 of a bulb by Pontus Wallstén.

Lilium szovitsianum, John Lykkegaard JohansenLilium szovitsianum bulb, Pontus Wallstén

American Section A-M - American Section N-Z - Asiatic Section A-C - Asiatic Section D-K - Asiatic Section L-O - Asiatic Section P-Z - Dauricum Section - Martagon Section - Oriental Section - Trumpet Section - Lilium Hybrids - Lilium Index


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Page last modified on February 22, 2014, at 05:33 PM