The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention is a treaty to protect said endangered species from the effects of international trade by installing a system of permits and certificates to guarantee sustainable sources not endangering the species in the wild. The treaty is in effect since 1st of July 1975, and is observed by 183 nations worldwide as of 2022.

CITES protection may refer to complete specimen or any derived products like objects of art (e.g. ivory objects) or medicinal preparations. The level of protection depends also on the "Appendix" to the treaty in which the species is listed.

Appendix I
Species that are critically endangered in the wild. Commercial trade of wild-sourced specimen as prohibited, and non-commercial trade needing extensive paperwork both on export and import side.

Appendix II
Species which are not directly threatened with extinction but may become so if not controlled. The vast majority of protected species fall in this category. Trade requires an official export permit from the origin country. Luckily, seeds and, for orchidaceae, seedpods are an exception to these rules for most of the Appendix II species - please find details here.

Appendix III
Species put under protection by individual countries, asking other cosignatories for assistance. Also requires an export certificate, at least from the country requesting the listing.

Artificially propagated Appendix I material may be treated under Appendix II conditions it the origin is sufficiently documented. The requirements of Appendix II can not be lifted through cultivation and apply even to clonal selections and artificial hybrids. Further simplifications exist for registered scientific institutions.

The definition of import and export allows for free trade within common markets as the EU or the USMCA (formerly NAFTA), so the borders of those also limit the ability to trade within the PBS bulb and seed exchanges, as we are not able to provide the required paperwork. Several species, genera and even plant families on the wiki fall under these protection levels - the following list is not guaranteed to be complete.

Appendix I:

Currently no bulb species listed - be careful with some cacti and certain Aloe species if your interests reach beyond bulbs

Appendix II:

complete families:


Single species:

Appendix III

Currently no bulb species listed.

Page last modified on March 07, 2023, at 10:18 PM
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