On this wiki page we will list the Ornithogalum species that originate in southern Africa from A-O.
Ornithogalum adseptentrionesvergentulum U.Müll.-Doblies & D.Müll.-Doblies is one of the world's most miniature bulb species (under 3 cm tall) and yet it has the one of the longest names of any plant in the world. It is native to an area north of Laingsburg in the western end of the Great Karoo Desert of South Africa. The climate is harsh there with hot days and freezing nights with an average of 150 mm precipitation per year, falling only in winter. It is a winter-growing species, dormant in the summer. In some years when there hasn't been enough rain the bulbs will skip growing seasons and remain dormant, conserving their energy for better years. To avoid deep frosts they inhabit hillsides that are covered in grey shale that get shade in the summer from the intense force of direct desert sunlight. In habitat the leaves all lean to the north, hence its sesquipedalian specific epithet, and blend in with the grey shale that surround them. In the experience of Nhu Nguyen and Jacob Knecht growing this species in Berkeley, California, its leaves haven't demonstrated quite so much determination to lean in a single direction. It produces impressive numbers of charming blush-cream flowers with a quite reflective, sparkly appearance that open sequentially.
Ornithogalum candicans (Baker) J.C.Manning & Goldblatt is the new name for Galtonia candicans. This gracious species' native range covers the East Cape Province of South Africa and also includes Lesotho. The first picture shows a planting grown and photographed by Jacob Knecht. The second was taken at Satansnek Pass in the Eastern Cape of South Africa by Cameron McMaster. The last photo from Mary Sue Ittner was taken at the same spot.
Ornithogalum caudatum see Albuca bracteata
Ornithogalum concordianum see Albuca concordiana
Ornithogalum constrictum F.M. Leight is a wide-spread species from both the winter rainfall, year round rainfall, and summer rainfall areas of the Western and Eastern Cape with a strange outpost in the Northern Cape. It has been found in Bredasdorp, Grahamstown, Hondeklipbaai.
The photo below was taken of a plant found in clay soils in the renosterveld. It has white flowers with greenish keels below and grows in both the winter rainfall, year round rainfall, and summer rainfall areas. It blooms November to February in the wild. Photo by Cameron McMaster taken in the Overberg.
The photos below were taken by Hans Joschko of a plant in cultivation. This plant seems to make a lot of seeds and can spread itself in a collection.
Ornithogalum convallarioides is from Madagascar. Photos by Alessandro Marinello.
Ornithogalum dubium is a long blooming plant with beautiful large flowers, yellow to orange or rarely white, often with a green or brown center. This species is found on mountains and flats over a broad area in the Cape Province of South Africa. Some of us have found it is difficult to get it to come up and bloom every year. Often only one or two of four bulbs I have appear. The bulbs still look healthy if you dump them out, but they don't always choose to grow. This year one has sent up 9 flowering stalks whereas usually there is only one. It is reported by some growers that this species benefits from a little bit of water during the summer dormancy. However, summer watering should always be made with care and success depends on the individual's summer climate. Flowering time can be late winter until early spring. Seeds are extremely tiny and dust-like. First two photos by Mary Sue Ittner of flowers in bud and opening. The last photo was taken by Nhu Nguyen at the UC Botanical Garden where a nice clump flowers every year.
Most years it is possible to buy ornithogalums at garden centers that probably are Ornithogalum dubium or have it in their heritage. Last year I bought three that were just labeled white, yellow, and orange. They all bloomed for a long time. None of them chose to grow this year however. This yellow one was blooming at the same time as Triteleia laxa and Triteleia peduncularis pictured in the background and I found that a pleasing color combination. Photo #1 by Bob Rutemoeller. Photo #2 was taken by Mary Sue Ittner of a plant found flowering near Tulbagh August 2006 with Lachenalia unifolia. Photos #3 & 4 are habitat pictures from Cameron McMaster taken in the Overberg.
Ornithogalum fimbrimarginatum comes from Giftberg to the Eastern Cape. Its botanical name reflects the hairy leaf margins. Photographs taken by Ed Mertz of plants belonging to Pamela Slate, contributed by Pamela Slate. These plants originate from bulbs donated to BX 247 by Roy Herold.
Ornithogalum graminifolium is found on stony clay flats and slopes, often in moist sites from the western Karoo to KwaZulu-Natal. It has linear to lanceolate leaves and white, yellow or pink flowers. This species has a wide distribution and is very variable in color and habit. It blooms in summer. Photo by Cameron McMaster.
Ornithogalum hispidum is found on clay flats and stony clay slopes from Namaqualand to Worcester. Leaves are distinctive, three to six, often with spotted sheathing bases and hairy. Flowers are white in a narrow raceme. Photo by Cameron McMaster taken in the Overberg.
Ornithogalum hybrids Rod Saunders and Rachel Saunders of Silverhill Seeds with their partner, Andy, are creating hybrids from some of the South African species. Here are pictures of three of them photographed by Bob Rutemoeller
Ornithogalum juncifolium, syn. Nicipe juncifolium, is found in damp, grassy areas, on cliffs, up to 2300 m from the southeastern Cape to Mpumalanga. It has narrow ribbed leaves and white flowers with central green stripes. Photos from Mary Sue Ittner taken January 2010 at Gaika's Kop.
Photos below from Pamela Slate who wondered what species this was. Close ups of the bulbs show the basal leaf clasping that becomes terete halfway or more toward the leaf tip. Flowers are 1.5 cm in diameter, slightly smaller than the bulbs in these photos. Entire plant is only 4-5 inches tall.
Ornithogalum longibracteatum see Albuca bracteata
Ornithogalum maculatum is found in sandy soils, often in rocks from Namaqualand to the southwest Cape and the western Karoo. It is a very striking plant with orange to orange-red or yellow floweres with the outer tipal tips often having a dark blotch. These first 3 photos were taken September 2006 in Namaqualand by Bob Rutemoeller and Mary Sue Ittner. Flowers seen in the morning mist were not yet open, but later in the day they were. Photos 4-6 were taken on the Biekoes Farm near Nieuwoudtville by Cameron McMaster September 2011.
Ornithogalum multifolium is a tiny plant usually less than 10 cm. high, but can be up to 25 cm. It is found in shallow pockets of soil on rock outcrops from Namaqualand south to areas in the western Cape. We saw it often with the flowers closed in the early morning or later in the day in the Roggeveld and the Bokkeveld Plateau in September 2006. These pictures were taken by Bob Rutemoeller and Mary Sue Ittner of a group seen in Namaqualand in the middle of the day and illustrate the habitat as well as the flowers. The last picture from Rod Saunders.
Ornithogalum neopatersonia, syn. Neopatersonia uitenhagensis, grows on mostly limestone slopes and has greenish flowers with white stamens. It blooms in the spring. Photo taken by Alan Horstmann.
Ornithogalum osmynellum see Albuca osmynella
Related genera are listed below. Some of these are now included in Ornithogalum or were recently included and now restored to genus status:
Albuca - Dipcadi - Galtonia - Neopatersonia - Ornithogalum index - Pseudogaltonia - Southern African Ornithogalum P-Z