Summer-Growing Gladiolus

The greatest diversity of Gladiolus species occurs in the Western Cape of South Africa, where they are summer-dormant and grow during winter rains. However, approximately 40% of the species are from summer rainfall regions in eastern South Africa, tropical Africa and Eurasia. The florists' glads are derived from several of these species, but few others are commonly grown.

The following is a list of summer-growing Gladiolus species, based primarily on Gladiolus in Southern Africa and Gladiolus in Tropical Africa, following the classification of the former. Cameron McMaster wrote an article about the South African summer rainfall species for Farmers Weekly in 2008. Gladiolus gueinzii, Gladiolus permeabilis ssp. permeabilis and Gladiolus saccatus are winter-rainfall species that range into summer-rainfall areas where they grow in summer.

List of Summer-Growing Gladiolus
Section Densiflorus
Series Paludosus (all summer-growing)
South African
Gladiolus paludosus Gladiolus papilio
Tropical African
Gladiolus gregarius Gladiolus harmsianus Gladiolus microspicatus Gladiolus zambesiacus
Series Densiflorus (all summer-growing)
South African
Gladiolus crassifolius Gladiolus densiflorus Gladiolus exiguus Gladiolus ferrugineus
Gladiolus hollandii Gladiolus lithicola Gladiolus serpenticola Gladiolus varius
Tropical African
Gladiolus mosambicensis
Series Calcaratus (all summer-growing)
South African
Gladiolus appendiculatus Gladiolus calcaratus Gladiolus macneilii
Section Ophiolyza
Series Oppositiflorus (all summer-growing)
South African
Gladiolus dolomiticus Gladiolus elliotii Gladiolus oppositiflorus Gladiolus pole-evansii
Gladiolus sericeovillosus
Series Ecklonii (all summer-growing)
South African
Gladiolus ecklonii Gladiolus rehmannii Gladiolus vinosomaculatus
Series Scabridus (all summer-growing)
South African
Gladiolus brachyphyllus Gladiolus cataractarum Gladiolus microcarpus Gladiolus mortonius
Gladiolus ochroleucus Gladiolus pavonia Gladiolus reginae Gladiolus scabridus
Series Ophiolyza (all summer-growing)
South African
Gladiolus antholyzoides Gladiolus aurantiacus Gladiolus cruentus Gladiolus dalenii
Gladiolus flanaganii Gladiolus magnificus Gladiolus saundersii
Tropical African
Gladiolus benguellensis Gladiolus manikaensis Gladiolus melleri Gladiolus oliganthus
Gladiolus roseolus Gladiolus velutinus
Series Abyssinicus
Tropical African
Gladiolus abyssinicus Gladiolus dichrous Gladiolus longispathaceus Gladiolus schweinfurthii
Gladiolus watsonioides
Section Blandus
Series Scabulosus
South African
Gladiolus gueinzii
Section Linearifolius
Series Pubigerus (all summer-growing)
South African
Gladiolus malvinus Gladiolus pardalinus Gladiolus parvulus Gladiolus pubigerus
Gladiolus woodii
Section Heterocolon
Series Unguiculatus (all summer-growing)
South African
Gladiolus oatesii
Tropical African
Gladiolus atropurpureus Gladiolus gracillimus Gladiolus pusillus Gladiolus serapiiflorus
Gladiolus unguiculatus
Series Heterocolon (all summer-growing)
South African
Gladiolus filiformis Gladiolus pretoriensis Gladiolus rubellus
Tropical African
Gladiolus actinomorphanthus Gladiolus camilae Gladiolus debeerstii Gladiolus gracillimus
Gladiolus juncifolius Gladiolus ledoctei Gladiolus linearifolius Gladiolus puberulus
Gladiolus pungens Gladiolus pusillus Gladiolus robiliartianus Gladiolus sulculatus
Gladiolus tshombeanus
Series Vernus
South African
Gladiolus rufomarginatus Gladiolus vernus
Section Hebea
Series Involutus
South African
Gladiolus cunonius Gladiolus involutus Gladiolus loteniensis Gladiolus saccatus
Gladiolus splendens Gladiolus vandermerwei
Series Permeabilis
South African
Gladiolus permeabilis ssp. permeabilis Gladiolus permeabilis ssp. edulis Gladiolus robertsoniae
Section Homoglossum
Series Teretifolius
South African
Gladiolus longicollis Gladiolus symonsii
Section Acidanthera
Tropical African
Gladiolus aequinoctialis Gladiolus candidus Gladiolus chevalieranus Gladiolus iroensis
Gladiolus leonensis Gladiolus murielae Gladiolus praecostatus
Section Decoratus
Tropical African
Gladiolus decoratus Gladiolus grantii Gladiolus lithicola Gladiolus mirus
Gladiolus oligophlebius Gladiolus salmoneicolor Gladiolus serenjensis Gladiolus stenolobus
Gladiolus sudanicus
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